A training programme is designed to improve fitness, sharpen skills and encourage team work. Many sports are seasonal, therefore the programme is divided into parts called periodisation. Some sports use three main periods: 1. Preseason – Focus on a high level of general fitness for the particular sport. – Concentrate on muscular endurance, power and speed work. – Development of techniques, skills and strategies for the particular sport. 2. Competitive/Peak season – Emphasise speed. – Practise skills at high speed and competitive situations (training circuits and practise matches). – Extra fitness sessions for strength and power for key muscles. – Adequate recovery and rest to avoid injury and fatigue. 3. Off Season – Aims for complete recovery from competition through rest, relaxation and other sports (active rest) to maintain a level of fitness. The training programme can be long-term or short and designed for a particular sport, specific level of ability, an individual sports person or group of sports people at a similar level of ability. The skill requirements, type of fitness needed, demographics (age, health, experience, etc) must be considered. The training principles, including the FITT principle and training methods, must be incorporated in planning training programmes. The components of a training session. Having decided on the programme of training, the actual training session should have three parts: 1. Warm-up The warm-up helps with mental preparation, increases heart rate and blood flow, warm muscles, loosen joints, increases flexibility and reduces the risk of injury to muscles and joints. The warm-ups must last at least 20-30 minutes and should include: – Gentle exercise for the whole body, such as jogging. – Gentle stretching to increase range of movement at the joints and prevent strains on muscles tendons and ligaments. Each stretch must be held for 10-30 seconds with no bouncing. – Specific warm-up for the activity, e.g., minor game passing the ball around. 2. Training activities This is the body of the training session and prepares the individual or team in different ways for fitness and skill development, depending on the demand of the particular sport. The training activity should include the following: – Physical preparation A fitness session, e.g., continuous, fartlek, interval or circuit training – Psychological preparation Players need a certain intensity of motivation called arousal, which aids performance. If the arousal level is not high enough, boredom sets in and performance declines. Anxiety, stress level and aggression must also be managed. The team psychiatrist will help the players to recognise and manage these problems. – Technical preparation These are the basic patterns of movement which have to be developed in every activity. Skilful performance is the product of using techniques correctly, e.g., a netball player may work through a series of practices designed to improve footwork skills. – Tactical preparation How the opponent is beaten will depend on a number of different factors. Therefore, in order to win, a tactical game plan is needed. The main tactic for most sport involves either attack or defence. The basic principles behind these should be done during the session. For example, corner or free kicks can be done by using drills and practices for each situation. 3. Cool down The cool down is where the body recovers after vigorous activity and is as important as the warm-up. It prevents soreness, keeps circulation up so that more oxygen reaches the muscles to clear away lactic acid, and loosens tight muscles to prevent stiffness later. The cool down must begin with a few minutes of jogging, then finishing with stretching exercises. Special attention must be given to the main joints used. Recovery rate is how quickly the body gets back to normal. Make sure enough time is given to recover between training sessions. If training is done every day, follow a heavy one-day session with a light session. During a heavy training period, at least one rest day must be taken per week.
Some women were assigned to cut the fat in their diets to 20percent of calories – from an average of 35 percent – while others continued their usual diets. Yet the study so far has found the diet made little impact on rates of breast cancer, colorectal cancer and heart disease.160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREChargers go winless in AFC West with season-ending loss in Kansas CityUntil now, the only known prescription against ovarian cancer – aside from surgically removing the ovaries – was to use birth control pills. Use for five years can lower the cancer risk by up to 60 percent, protection that lingers after pill use ends. The new findings now offer an option for postmenopausal women to try as well. Those who followed a low-fat diet for eight years cut the chance of ovarian cancer by 40percent, researchers reported Tuesday. It’s arguably the most promising finding of the Women’s Health Initiative dietary study, which enrolled tens of thousands of healthy women 50 to 79 to track the role of fat in several leading killers. By Lauran Neergaard THE ASSOCIATED PRESS WASHINGTON – Cutting dietary fat may also cut the risk of ovarian cancer, says a study of almost 40,000 older women that found the first hard evidence that menu changes protect against this particularly lethal cancer. But the protection didn’t kick in until the women had eaten less fat for four years.
Johns Hopkins University recently announced it is committing more than $25 million in new funding over the next five years toward recruiting and retaining diverse faculty members.The details of the faculty diversity plan were announced by Hopkins Provost Robert C. Lieberman and the deans of the university’s schools in a letter to the campus community. The initiative, the letter said, came out of the annual deans’ meeting last spring and was developed over the past year after intensive data trend analyses, consultation, comparison with peer institutions and other efforts.The initiative “will support our firm commitment to locate, attract, and retain the best and most talented faculty, representing a broad diversity of backgrounds, thought, and experiences,” the letter read. “Each academic division of the university will develop and execute a detailed plan, tailored to its specific academic discipline, to enhance faculty diversity and cultivate an environment that is inclusive of diverse scholars.”The diversity plan comprises five major components:-New search protocols for each department created with an eye to recruiting diverse talent. Search committee members will also receive unconscious bias training and diversity advocates will be included.-A fund that provides up to $100,000 per appointee to support the targeted recruitment of extraordinary minority and women scholars.-A new fund that supports visiting scholars for short or long stays, which may also prove as a means of recruiting diverse talent to the university.-A postdoctoral fellowship program will prepare designees for tenure-track faculty positions, particularly in fields where minorities and women are underrepresented.-A $50,000 annual award will be given by the provost’s office to a full-time Johns Hopkins faculty member who demonstrates excellence in research related to issues of equity, diversity and inclusion.According to the university’s Diversity Leadership Council’s 2014-2015 report, faculty from underrepresented backgrounds comprise on average 2-3 percent of tenure-track professors.Johns Hopkins is among several universities—including Brown, Yale and Harvard—that recently announced multi-million-dollar diversity and inclusion initiatives following student protests nationwide.