Juventus goalscorer Higuain: We won with great character and determinationby Carlos Volcano18 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveJuventus goalscorer Gonzalo Higuain was delighted with the manner of victory over Inter Milan.The Argentine came off the bench to score the winner in the 2-1 triumph.“It was a great game from Juve. Inter were the most solid side in the league, they had won six out of six,” Pipita told Sky Sport Italia.“We played with great character and determination. I am glad we took it home.“This is a great start to the season, but it’s still early and we want to fight on all fronts.” About the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Feb 26 2019Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Queensland University of Technology of Australia, have developed a device that can isolate individual cancer cells from patient blood samples. The microfluidic device works by separating the various cell types found in blood by their size. The device may one day enable rapid, cheap liquid biopsies to help detect cancer and develop targeted treatment plans. The findings are reported in the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering.”This new microfluidics chip lets us separate cancer cells from whole blood or minimally-diluted blood,” said Ian Papautsky, the Richard and Loan Hill Professor of Bioengineering in the UIC College of Engineering and corresponding author on the paper. “While devices for detecting cancer cells circulating in the blood are becoming available, most are relatively expensive and are out of reach of many research labs or hospitals. Our device is cheap, and doesn’t require much specimen preparation or dilution, making it fast and easy to use.”The ability to successfully isolate cancer cells is a crucial step in enabling liquid biopsy where cancer could be detected through a simple blood draw. This would eliminate the discomfort and cost of tissue biopsies which use needles or surgical procedures as part of cancer diagnosis. Liquid biopsy could also be useful in tracking the efficacy of chemotherapy over the course of time, and for detecting cancer in organs difficult to access through traditional biopsy techniques, including the brain and lungs.However, isolating circulating tumor cells from the blood is no easy task, since they are present in extremely small quantities. For many cancers, circulating cells are present at levels close to one per 1 billion blood cells. “A 7.5-milliliter tube of blood, which is a typical volume for a blood draw, might have ten cancer cells and 35-40 billion blood cells,” said Papautsky. “So we are really looking for a needle in a haystack.”Microfluidic technologies present an alternative to traditional methods of cell detection in fluids. These devices either use markers to capture targeted cells as they float by, or they take advantage of the physical properties of targeted cells — mainly size — to separate them from other cells present in fluids.Papautsky and his colleagues developed a device that uses size to separate tumor cells from blood. “Using size differences to separate cell types within a fluid is much easier than affinity separation which uses ‘sticky’ tags that capture the right cell type as it goes by,” said Papautsky. “Affinity separation also requires a lot of advanced purification work which size separation techniques don’t need.”Related StoriesStudy reveals link between inflammatory diet and colorectal cancer riskAdding immunotherapy after initial treatment improves survival in metastatic NSCLC patientsTrends in colonoscopy rates not aligned with increase in early onset colorectal cancerThe device Papautsky and his colleagues developed capitalizes on the phenomena of inertial migration and shear-induced diffusion to separate cancer cells from blood as it passes through ‘microchannels’ formed in plastic. “We are still investigating the physics behind these phenomena and their interplay in the device, but it separates cells based on tiny differences in size which dictate the cell’s attraction to various locations within a column of liquid as it moves.”Papautsky and his colleagues ‘spiked’ 5-milliliter samples of healthy blood with 10 small-cell-lung cancer cells and then ran the blood through their device. They were able to recover 93 percent of the cancer cells using the microfluidic device. Previously-developed microfluidics devices designed to separate circulating tumor cells from blood had recovery rates between 50 percent and 80 percent.When they ran eight samples of blood taken from patients diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer, they were able to separate cancer cells from six of the samples using the microfluidic device.In addition to the high efficiency and reliability of the devices, Papautsky said the fact that little dilution is needed is another plus. “Without having to dilute, the time to run samples is shorter and so is preparation time.” They used whole blood in their experiments as well as blood diluted just three times, which is low compared to other protocols for cell separation using devices based on inertial migration.Papautsky and colleague Dr. Alicia Hubert, assistant professor of surgery in the UIC College of Medicine, recently received a $125,000, one-year grant from the University of Illinois Cancer Center to develop a microfluidics device that can separate out circulating tumor cells as well as detect DNA from cancer cells in blood from lung cancer patients. They will use blood from patients being seen at the University of Illinois Cancer Center to test the efficacy of their prototype device. Source:https://today.uic.edu/new-microfluidics-device-can-detect-cancer-cells-in-blood
Citation: A new method for ethical data science (2019, March 21) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-method-ethical-science.html A less technical way of looking at it is that people, fundamentally, are team players: they want to fit in and may find it difficult to criticise the work of their close colleagues. They might also become subject to ‘group think’ without realising it.In Wellcome Data Labs we have worked out a paired approach to Agile ethics which is intended to resolve this issue. Our proposed methodology has three steps:Embedding within Data Labs a user researcher with a background both in working as part of Agile product teams and in carrying out social sciences research. This embedded researcher will have the explicitly defined objective of testing the algorithmic models the software developers and data scientists are working on from the point of view of their possible social impact.They will adjust and develop their analysis iteratively to match the speed of the technology work and feed their emergent conclusions back to the data scientists to steer the course of their work.The embedded researcher will be paired up with another social scientist outside the team to provide an objective critique and the necessary checks and balances on their analysis.All three parts of the proposed methodology are equally important.Not embedding the researcher in the team would make it hard for them to have a close enough knowledge of what the data scientists are doing.Not iteratively retesting and rewriting their analysis of possible social impact will fail to match the rhythm of the technological development – the key proposed advantage of this methodology.Finally, the pairing is designed to prevent the embedded researcher risking a loss of their professional detachment and objectivity, which is a risk precisely because they are so closely embedded within the technology teams.This whole approach is an experiment in itself and we are not at all certain that it will work. However, that is exactly what makes it exciting to us. We hope it will help us become better aware of the biases being introduced by the algorithms that we develop and minimise any potential negative unintentional consequences of the tools the team produces.This is important because Wellcome, as a significant funder of scientific research, has a notable impact on the academic and health industries. And Wellcome Data Labs’ analysis feeds into Wellcome’s decision making process. Any unintended biases in the algorithms my team produces that can impact Wellcome’s decisions, could have a ripple effect on the decisions of more funders, which in turn could cascade down to secondary impacts on other industries and the wider society. We have a responsibility to get it right. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Artificial Intelligence is transforming our world, sometimes in ways that its creators did not intend. In Wellcome Data Labs we are developing a new method of applying approaches from the social sciences to the way AI algorithms are produced to solve data science problems. The goal is to avoid potential negative consequences of the algorithms by identifying them earlier in the development process. Provided by Wellcome Trust There have been attempts to set out such a way of working already. An example is Catalina Butnaru’s excellent post proposing a new Agile ethics process. There is much to recommend this approach, not least that it is systematic and aligned closely in its steps to well-known steps of agile software development methodologies.However, Butnaru does not address the mechanics of how her suggested Agile ethics process could be managed. Is it the team of data scientists and engineers themselves who are responsible for following the steps? Or their product manager? Or the UX team? Or a separate team to the engineers that audits their work?We have been thinking about such questions a lot, since we are keen to test out how ethical approaches can be applied to the work of data scientists in practice and not just in theory.The key challenge we set ourselves is: how to apply a process such as Butnaru’s, or one of the other rival methodologies, in a way that measurably reduces ethical issues, like inadvertent bias, but does not reduce the energy and effectiveness of our Agile product teams?We think this can be done by encouraging social scientists to work as part of interdisciplinary teams with software developers and data scientists, adopting their agile and iterative methodologies.I have outlined some of the challenges of doing this. For example, the difficulty of getting social science researchers to work at the same speed and to the same rhythm as the software developers and data scientists. However, there is a potential template to follow by learning from the successful integration of the User Experience discipline into the software development workflows.There is an additional challenge, though. Relying on a user researcher embedded in a product team to steer that team through an Agile ethics methodology on their own introduces the risk of them losing objectivity. This is a well-known issue in ethnographic research, where there is an active tension between a researcher’s role as an impartial observer and the alternative of being an active participant. A framework for AI-powered agile project management
Tam Hunt, Affiliate Guest in Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara How can you know that any animal, other human beings, or anything that seems conscious, isn’t just faking it? Does it enjoy an internal subjective experience, complete with sensations and emotions like hunger, joy, or sadness? After all, the only consciousness you can know with certainty is your own. Everything else is inference. The nature of consciousness makes it by necessity a wholly private affair. These questions are more than philosophical. As intelligent digital assistants, self-driving cars and other robots start to proliferate, are these AIs actually conscious or just seem like it? Or what about patients in comas — how can doctors know with any certainty what kind of consciousness is or is not present, and prescribe treatment accordingly? In my work, often with with psychologist Jonathan Schooler at the University of California, Santa Barbara, we’re developing a framework for thinking about the many different ways to possibly test for the presence of consciousness.Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65874-tests-for-consciousness.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35 There is a small but growing field looking at how to assess the presence and even quantity of consciousness in various entities. I’ve divided possible tests into three broad categories that I call the measurable correlates of consciousness. You can look for brain activity that occurs at the same time as reported subjective states. Or you can look for physical actions that seem to be accompanied by subjective states. Finally, you can look for the products of consciousness, like artwork or music, or this article I’ve written, that can be separated from the entity that created them to infer the presence — or not — of consciousness. Neural correlates of consciousness Over the last two decades, scientists have proposed various ways to probe cognition and consciousness in unresponsive patients. In such cases, there aren’t any behaviors to observe or any creative products to assess. You can check for the neural correlates of consciousness, though. What’s physically going on in the brain? Neuroimaging tools such as EEG, MEG, fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (each with their own strengths and weaknesses), are able to provide information on activity happening within the brain even in coma and vegetative patients. Cognitive neuroscientist Stanislas Dehaene has identified what he calls four signatures of consciousness — specific aspects of brain activity he deems necessary for normal consciousness. He focuses on what’s known as the “P3 wave” in the dorsolateral cortex — the part of the brain behind the top of your forehead — because it seems to correlate most reliably with normal conscious states. He also focuses on long-range synchronized electric fields between different parts of the brain as another key signature of consciousness. In tests which look for these signals in vegetative and minimally conscious patients, Dehaene and his colleagues have successfully predicted which patients are most likely to regain more normal states of consciousness. Sid Kouider, another cognitive neuroscientist, has examined infants in order to assess the likelihood that very young babies are conscious. He and his team looked for specific neural signatures that go along with subjective experience in adults. They looked specifically for a certain type of brain waves, similar to the P3 wave Dehaene focuses on, that are reliable indicators of consciousness in adults. They found clear analogs of the P3 wave in the brains of babies as young as five months old. Kouider concludes — unsurprisingly — that even young babies are very likely conscious in various complex ways, such as recognizing faces. Behavioral correlates of consciousness When considering potentially conscious entities that can’t communicate directly, and that won’t allow neuroscientific measurement tools on their head (if they even have heads), it’s possible to consider physical behaviors as clues for the presence and type of consciousness. You know that a massive range of human behaviors are accompanied by conscious experience. So when you see similar behaviors in other animals or even non-animals, can you reasonably infer the presence of consciousness? For example, are cats conscious? Their brain architecture is a little different than humans’. They have very minimal prefrontal cortex, which some scientists think is the center of many higher-order activities of the human brain. But is a prefrontal cortex necessary for consciousness? Cat behavior is complex and pretty easy to map onto human behavior in many ways. Cats purr, flex their toes and snuggle when petted, in similar ways to people demonstrating pleasure when physically stimulated — minus the purrs, of course. They meow loudly for food when hungry and stop meowing when fed. They demonstrate curiosity or fear about other cats or humans with various types of body language. These and many other easily observable behaviors add up to convincing evidence for most people that cats are indeed conscious and have rich emotional lives. You can imagine looking for other familiar behaviors in a rat, or an ant or a plant — if you see things close enough to what you’d expect in conscious humans, you may credit the observed creature with a certain type of consciousness. Creative correlates of consciousness If, for whatever reason, you can’t examine neural or behavioral correlates of consciousness, maybe you can look to creative outputs for clues that would indicate consciousness. For example, when examining ancient megalithic structures such as Stonehenge, or cave paintings created as far back as 65,000 years ago, is it reasonable to assume that their creators were conscious in ways similar to us? Most people would likely say yes. You know from experience that it would take high intelligence and consciousness to produce such items today, so reasonably conclude that our ancient ancestors had similar levels of consciousness. What if explorers find obviously unnatural artifacts on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system? It will depend on the artifacts in question, but if astronauts were to find anything remotely similar to human dwellings or machinery that was clearly not human in origin, it would be reasonable to infer that the creators of these artifacts were also conscious. Closer to home, artificial intelligence has produced some pretty impressive art — impressive enough to fetch over US$400,000 in a recent art auction. At what point do reasonable people conclude that creating art requires consciousness? Researchers could conduct a kind of “artistic Turing Test”: ask study participants to consider various artworks and say which ones they conclude were probably created by a human. If AI artwork consistently fools people into thinking it was made by a person, is that good evidence to conclude that the AI is at least in some ways conscious? So far AI aren’t convincing most observers, but it’s reasonable to expect that they will be able to in the future. Where’s my ‘consciousness-ometer’? Can anyone get a definitive answer about the presence of consciousness, and how much? Unfortunately, the answer to both questions is no. There is not yet a “consciousness-ometer,” but various researchers, including Dehaene, have some ideas. Neuroscientist Giulio Tononi and his colleagues like Christof Koch focus on what they call “integrated information” as a measure of consciousness. This theory suggests that anything that integrates at least one bit of information has at least a tiny amount of consciousness. A light diode, for example, contains just one bit of information and thus has a very limited type of consciousness. With just two possible states, on or off, however, it’s a rather uninteresting kind of consciousness. In my work, my collaborators and I share this “panpsychist” foundation. We accept as a working hypothesis that any physical system has some associated consciousness, however small it may be in the vast majority of cases. Rather than integrated information as the key measure of consciousness, however, we focus on resonance and synchronization and the degree to which parts of a whole resonate at the same or similar frequencies. Resonance in the case of the human brain generally means shared electric field oscillation rates, such as gamma band synchrony (40-120 Hertz). Our consciousness-ometer would then look at the degree of shared resonance and resulting information flows as the measure of consciousness. Humans and other mammals enjoy a particularly rich kind of consciousness, because there are many levels of pervasive shared synchronization throughout the brain, nervous system and body. Tests for consciousness are still in their infancy. But this field of study is undergoing a renaissance because the study of consciousness more generally has finally become a respectable scientific pursuit. Before too long it may be possible to measure just how much consciousness is present in various entities — including in you and me. [Deep knowledge, daily. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter. ] This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.
COMMENTS SHARE Published on Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee at the BGBS – Debasish Bhaduri SHARE SHARE EMAIL February 08, 2019 Investment proposals worth over ₹2.84 lakh crore were made at the two-day Bengal Global Business Summit (BGBS) that ended here today. This is nearly 30 per cent higher than the ₹2.19 lakh crore received through its business summit last year.According to Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, the investments are expected to create 8-10 lakh jobs in the State.“Till now, we have received ₹2,84,288-crore worth investment proposals. This is the achievement of this BGBS. Investment means business, which in turn means creation of new jobs. With this kind of investment, we expect 8-10 lakh new jobs to be created in Bengal,” said Banerjee, while addressing at a session of the fifth edition of the BGBS here on Friday.According to Banerjee, nearly 40 per cent of the total investment proposals around ₹10 lakh crore received in the last four editions of BGBS are under various stages of implementation. Around 5,000 delegates from 35 countries participated in the two-day business summit. Nearly 63 business-to-government, 45 business-to-consumer, and around 1,200 business-to-business meetings were held; around 86 memorandums of understanding were signed during the summit this year.“West Bengal is the safest place to invest in. The outcome of this business summit proves the credibility and accountability of participants and the State government,” she said. Banerjee added that the State government will ensure that Bengal is the “investment destination for future. “With our initiatives, we will prove that Bengal is the destination of investments,” she said. events COMMENT West Bengal