Planning a training programme


first_imgA training programme is designed to improve fitness, sharpen skills and encourage team work. Many sports are seasonal, therefore the programme is divided into parts called periodisation. Some sports use three main periods: 1. Preseason – Focus on a high level of general fitness for the particular sport. – Concentrate on muscular endurance, power and speed work. – Development of techniques, skills and strategies for the particular sport. 2. Competitive/Peak season – Emphasise speed. – Practise skills at high speed and competitive situations (training circuits and practise matches). – Extra fitness sessions for strength and power for key muscles. – Adequate recovery and rest to avoid injury and fatigue. 3. Off Season – Aims for complete recovery from competition through rest, relaxation and other sports (active rest) to maintain a level of fitness. The training programme can be long-term or short and designed for a particular sport, specific level of ability, an individual sports person or group of sports people at a similar level of ability. The skill requirements, type of fitness needed, demographics (age, health, experience, etc) must be considered. The training principles, including the FITT principle and training methods, must be incorporated in planning training programmes. The components of a training session. Having decided on the programme of training, the actual training session should have three parts: 1. Warm-up The warm-up helps with mental preparation, increases heart rate and blood flow, warm muscles, loosen joints, increases flexibility and reduces the risk of injury to muscles and joints. The warm-ups must last at least 20-30 minutes and should include: – Gentle exercise for the whole body, such as jogging. – Gentle stretching to increase range of movement at the joints and prevent strains on muscles tendons and ligaments. Each stretch must be held for 10-30 seconds with no bouncing. – Specific warm-up for the activity, e.g., minor game passing the ball around. 2. Training activities This is the body of the training session and prepares the individual or team in different ways for fitness and skill development, depending on the demand of the particular sport. The training activity should include the following: – Physical preparation A fitness session, e.g., continuous, fartlek, interval or circuit training – Psychological preparation Players need a certain intensity of motivation called arousal, which aids performance. If the arousal level is not high enough, boredom sets in and performance declines. Anxiety, stress level and aggression must also be managed. The team psychiatrist will help the players to recognise and manage these problems. – Technical preparation These are the basic patterns of movement which have to be developed in every activity. Skilful performance is the product of using techniques correctly, e.g., a netball player may work through a series of practices designed to improve footwork skills. – Tactical preparation How the opponent is beaten will depend on a number of different factors. Therefore, in order to win, a tactical game plan is needed. The main tactic for most sport involves either attack or defence. The basic principles behind these should be done during the session. For example, corner or free kicks can be done by using drills and practices for each situation. 3. Cool down The cool down is where the body recovers after vigorous activity and is as important as the warm-up. It prevents soreness, keeps circulation up so that more oxygen reaches the muscles to clear away lactic acid, and loosens tight muscles to prevent stiffness later. The cool down must begin with a few minutes of jogging, then finishing with stretching exercises. Special attention must be given to the main joints used. Recovery rate is how quickly the body gets back to normal. Make sure enough time is given to recover between training sessions. If training is done every day, follow a heavy one-day session with a light session. During a heavy training period, at least one rest day must be taken per week.last_img read more

Jordan pawns GuySuCo for $30B – Ramsaroop


first_imgDear Editor,Finance Minister Winston Jordan has pawned the remaining working assets belonging to the Guyana Sugar Corporation for $30 billion; and while the promise is to keep the industry open, this is not the case.The announcement by Government that it had found $30 billion to invest in the Albion, Blairmont and Uitvlugt estates cannot be taken at face value, since this is a $30 billion loan on top of the more than $80 billion the company is claimed to already owe.I wish to draw a quick reference to the adage, ‘all that glitters is not gold.’ The Granger Administration, this past week, announced that it had secured $30 billion to be invested in the remaining three estates in order to return them to profitability.The devil is in the details. What the Special Purpose Unit (SPU) has in fact secured is a pawnbroker in the form of Republic Bank.The loan for the sugar industry is what we call a syndicated loan. What this means is that Republic Bank has agreed to manage a loan portfolio as against lending GuySuCO its customers’ money.The bank is not lending GuySuCo anything. What the bank has found is a set of persons who are going to put in some money, to be repaid within a short space of time.A school child would be able to tell that the sugar industry is facing financial difficulties as is, and so pawning off all of its assets in hopes that one bright idea would be forthcoming out of Congress Place is in itself a not-so-bright idea.A syndicated loan is one wherein the bank finds persons or companies with money willing to be put into a venture, and the bank in turn ensures that the syndicated loan is repaid as a priority out of any revenue stream.What this will mean for GuySuCo—a company already struggling to pay its basic bills—is that it will soon begin to default on those loans.There is no doubt the bank will ensure that such a risky transaction is insulated as best as possible, and this would mean Government guarantees and high interest rates.Is the sailor Minister Jordan making a bad situation worse, or have we caught wind of skullduggery at epic proportions? The announcement came at a time when the national gaze is on the oil and gas industry. I predict that, in the very near future, the sugar company will begin to default on its payments to Republic Bank, since there is only so much cost cutting you can do before having to actually shut down. You have already sent home thousands of workers and closed a number of estates. Without a comprehensive strategy for the industry, the David Granger Administration has now pawned out the only three remaining sugar estates, and when the company is unable to repay on its loan, Republic Bank will take the assets and sell them off as scrap in order to pay off the loan, ‘end of story.’This obtains even as the Government continues to sell out large plots of GuySuCo cane lands, and instead of investing the earnings into saving the industry, the PNC government has laid its cards on the table: not only will the industry be closed, but the factories will be sold as scrap metal.You remember what happened to the thousands of sugar workers who were fired in January this year? They are still to be provided with some form of alternative source of income or employment.What is going is like a fire-sale of GuySuCo, and what’s left abandoned will simply be sold as scrap metal — the end of a long and proud era of modern Guyanese history.Sincerely,Dr Peter Ramsarooplast_img read more