Disruptive behaviors in autistic children linked to reduced brain connectivity


first_img Source:https://news.yale.edu/2019/04/18/behavioral-disorders-kids-autism-linked-lower-brain-connectivity Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Apr 19 2019More than a quarter of children with autism spectrum disorder are also diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorders. For the first time, Yale researchers have identified a possible biological cause: a key mechanism that regulates emotion functions differently in the brains of the children who exhibit disruptive behavior.The study appears in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging.”Disruptive behaviors such as aggression, irritability, and noncompliance are common in children with autism, and are among the main reasons for psychiatric treatment and even hospitalization,” said Denis Sukhodolsky, senior author and associate professor in the Yale Child Study Center. “Yet, little is known about the biological underpinnings of behavioral problems in children with autism.”Related StoriesNew therapy shows promise in preventing brain damage after traumatic brain injuryNeural pathways explain the relationship between imagination and willingness to helpRush University Medical Center offers new FDA-approved treatment for brain aneurysmsThe first of its kind, the Yale study used fMRI scans conducted during an emotion perception task to compare the brain activity of autistic children who do and do not exhibit disruptive behavior. While in the scanner, the children were asked to view pictures of human faces that displayed calm or fearful expressions.During the task, the researchers found reduced connectivity between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex — a pathway critical to the regulation of emotion — in the brains of children who exhibit disruptive behavior as compared to the brains of children who do not. “Reduced amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex functional connectivity was uniquely associated with disruptive behavior but not with severity of social deficits or anxiety, suggesting a distinct brain network that could be separate from core autism symptoms,” explained Karim Ibrahim, first author and postdoctoral fellow in the Sukhodolsky lab.”This finding points to a brain mechanism of emotion dysregulation in children with autism and offers a potential biomarker for developing targeted treatments for irritability and aggression in autism,” said Sukhodolsky.last_img read more

German airports brace for Thursday strike


first_img Citation: German airports brace for Thursday strike (2019, January 9) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-german-airports-brace-thursday.html © 2019 AFP Flights scrapped as Berlin airports brace for Monday strike The walkout was to begin at 3:00 am (0200 GMT) in the airports of Dusseldorf, Cologne-Bonn and Stuttgart, and was to continue until midnight, the union said Wednesday.A warning strike took place on Monday morning at Berlin’s two airports, Tegel and Schoenefeld, forcing the cancellation of about 50 flights.Verdi, which represents 23,000 airport security personnel, wants wages raised to 20 euros ($23) an hour from around 17 euros currently, an increase of around 17 percent.The BDLS employers association has offered pay increases of between 2.0 and 8.1 percent.The next round of talks is scheduled for January 23. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.center_img A warning strike took place on Monday morning at Berlin’s two airports, forcing the cancelation of about 50 flights. Explore further Thousands of passengers in Germany face disruption on Thursday following a strike call by security staff at three major airports, the powerful Verdi union said.last_img read more

For bruised Apple a need to go beyond the iPhone


first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Apple Pay has been steadily adding to the roster of businesses that let people tap handsets to consummate transactions. Chinese exchange students pay tribute to the late Apple co-founder Steve Jobs eight years after his death, amid concerns the iPhone maker’s momentum has stalled Apple is aiming to show it can do more than just make iPhones in a quarterly update Tuesday for investors who are skeptical over whether the culture-changing company can regain the momentum from its glory days. “I distinctly recall Cook telling analysts during a quarterly earnings call that, having studied the country for 30 years, he knew China,” Gassee said in a blog.”How could Apple, which is more embedded than most Western companies, not see a Chinese economy slowdown that started well before the 2018 holiday quarter?”Apple is likely to face questions on whether it boosted prices too far, lifting its newest handsets to $1,000 or more, in a market that is seeing tougher competition.Consumer Intelligence Research Partners said its survey showed 65 percent of iPhone buyers chose the newer models over the less expensive ones, and that the average selling price of the devices rose to “well over $800.” Another important source of income is the surging market for app downloads, where Apple gets 30 percent of the action.Meanwhile, Apple remains under pressure as fans and analysts wonder whether the company lost its ability to wow the world when co-founder and chief Steve Jobs died in late 2011.The China factorApple had been growing in China until recently, but the combination of trade frictions and a slowing Chinese economy are cutting into its sales there.Former Apple executive Jean-Louis Gassee said the surprise on Chinese sales was a massive mistake for CEO Tim Cook. © 2019 AFP “This is unprecedented and representative of a resilient business,” Munster and Thompson write in a blog post.The saturated global smartphone market is forcing Apple to seek another reinvention.”This is not ‘the fall of Apple’—it’s just the shift of smartphones to boring maturity, as we look for what’s next,” Benedict Evans of the investment firm Andreessen Horowitz said in a recent blog post. Rumors buzzing about the company include its plans to produce it own shows, potentially challenging streaming television giants Netflix and Amazon Prime, which have invested heavily in original content.”There are other ways to make money but it’s not clear how Apple is going to do that,” noted analyst Jack Gold of J. Gold Associates.Apple has consistently touted the success of its eponymous smartwatch, engineering the wristwear with health and fitness features. Apple CEO Tim Cook is likely to face questions during the company’s earnings call on its strategy to deal with weaker smartphone sales and a lower demand from China Citation: For bruised Apple, a need to go beyond the iPhone (2019, January 29) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-apple-iphone.html Amid slowing smartphone sales, Apple is seeking to get more revenue from services such as music and its digital payment application, Apple Pay Apple’s bombshell and the trillion-dollar question Apple’s quarterly update comes amid concerns about slowing iPhone sales, especially in China In recent weeks, Apple shares have been hammered on concerns that its best days are over, with smartphone sales slipping and no new “big thing” on the horizon.Amid turbulence in the tech sector, Apple has lost its trillion-dollar status and slid behind rivals Microsoft and Amazon on the list of most valuable corporations.The California tech giant has been trying to shift focus to growth in the side of its business devoted to selling music, movies, apps, and services to the vast “install base” of Apple gadget owners as well as via other internet-linked devices.Apple delivered a stunning admission earlier this month that iPhone sales and overall revenues would be below most forecasts, citing economic weakness in China and trade frictions between Washington and Beijing.Some analysts believe iPhone sales over the quarter to December will show an unprecedented decline, although the exact figures won’t be visible because Apple has decided to leave off unit sales.Resilience?Gene Munster and Will Thompson of the investment firm Loup Ventures said that despite lower iPhone sales, Apple can make up for lost revenues from its growing services segment. Explore furtherlast_img read more

A new method for ethical data science


first_img Citation: A new method for ethical data science (2019, March 21) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-method-ethical-science.html A less technical way of looking at it is that people, fundamentally, are team players: they want to fit in and may find it difficult to criticise the work of their close colleagues. They might also become subject to ‘group think’ without realising it.In Wellcome Data Labs we have worked out a paired approach to Agile ethics which is intended to resolve this issue. Our proposed methodology has three steps:Embedding within Data Labs a user researcher with a background both in working as part of Agile product teams and in carrying out social sciences research. This embedded researcher will have the explicitly defined objective of testing the algorithmic models the software developers and data scientists are working on from the point of view of their possible social impact.They will adjust and develop their analysis iteratively to match the speed of the technology work and feed their emergent conclusions back to the data scientists to steer the course of their work.The embedded researcher will be paired up with another social scientist outside the team to provide an objective critique and the necessary checks and balances on their analysis.All three parts of the proposed methodology are equally important.Not embedding the researcher in the team would make it hard for them to have a close enough knowledge of what the data scientists are doing.Not iteratively retesting and rewriting their analysis of possible social impact will fail to match the rhythm of the technological development  –  the key proposed advantage of this methodology.Finally, the pairing is designed to prevent the embedded researcher risking a loss of their professional detachment and objectivity, which is a risk precisely because they are so closely embedded within the technology teams.This whole approach is an experiment in itself and we are not at all certain that it will work. However, that is exactly what makes it exciting to us. We hope it will help us become better aware of the biases being introduced by the algorithms that we develop and minimise any potential negative unintentional consequences of the tools the team produces.This is important because Wellcome, as a significant funder of scientific research, has a notable impact on the academic and health industries. And Wellcome Data Labs’ analysis feeds into Wellcome’s decision making process. Any unintended biases in the algorithms my team produces that can impact Wellcome’s decisions, could have a ripple effect on the decisions of more funders, which in turn could cascade down to secondary impacts on other industries and the wider society. We have a responsibility to get it right. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Artificial Intelligence is transforming our world, sometimes in ways that its creators did not intend. In Wellcome Data Labs we are developing a new method of applying approaches from the social sciences to the way AI algorithms are produced to solve data science problems. The goal is to avoid potential negative consequences of the algorithms by identifying them earlier in the development process.center_img Provided by Wellcome Trust There have been attempts to set out such a way of working already. An example is Catalina Butnaru’s excellent post proposing a new Agile ethics process. There is much to recommend this approach, not least that it is systematic and aligned closely in its steps to well-known steps of agile software development methodologies.However, Butnaru does not address the mechanics of how her suggested Agile ethics process could be managed. Is it the team of data scientists and engineers themselves who are responsible for following the steps? Or their product manager? Or the UX team? Or a separate team to the engineers that audits their work?We have been thinking about such questions a lot, since we are keen to test out how ethical approaches can be applied to the work of data scientists in practice and not just in theory.The key challenge we set ourselves is: how to apply a process such as Butnaru’s, or one of the other rival methodologies, in a way that measurably reduces ethical issues, like inadvertent bias, but does not reduce the energy and effectiveness of our Agile product teams?We think this can be done by encouraging social scientists to work as part of interdisciplinary teams with software developers and data scientists, adopting their agile and iterative methodologies.I have outlined some of the challenges of doing this. For example, the difficulty of getting social science researchers to work at the same speed and to the same rhythm as the software developers and data scientists. However, there is a potential template to follow by learning from the successful integration of the User Experience discipline into the software development workflows.There is an additional challenge, though. Relying on a user researcher embedded in a product team to steer that team through an Agile ethics methodology on their own introduces the risk of them losing objectivity. This is a well-known issue in ethnographic research, where there is an active tension between a researcher’s role as an impartial observer and the alternative of being an active participant. A framework for AI-powered agile project managementlast_img read more

Train carrying water from Jolarpettai arrives in parched Chennai


first_img Next Train carrying water from Jolarpettai arrives in parched ChennaiThe train with 50 tank wagons (BTPN), carrying 50,000 litres of water in each of them from Jolarpettai in Tamil Nadu’s Vellore district, reached the filling station at the Integral Coach Factory in Villivakkam Friday afternoon.advertisement Press Trust of India ChennaiJuly 12, 2019UPDATED: July 12, 2019 14:15 IST Around 100 inlet pipes installed near the railway tracks would be used to discharge 2.5 million litres of water. (Photo: IANS)A train carrying 2.5 million litres of water arrived in Chennai, which has been grappling with an acute water crisis over the past few months, officials said Friday.The train with 50 tank wagons (BTPN), carrying 50,000 litres of water in each of them from Jolarpettai in Tamil Nadu’s Vellore district, reached the filling station at the Integral Coach Factory in Villivakkam Friday afternoon.Around 100 inlet pipes installed near the railway tracks would be used to discharge 2.5 million litres of water in all the wagons to be sent to a treatment plant after passing through a conduit, an official of Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board said.”After treatment it would be sent for distribution. This arrangement has been made for the next six months until the (advent of the) north-east monsoon,” the official told PTI.The train was supposed to reach Chennai on Thursday, but leakages in the valves led to the delay. Jolarpettai is 217 km away from the southern metropolis.All the arrangements took around 20 days of time to complete.The initiative would be formally inaugurated by Tamil Nadu Ministers later in the day, the official said.Chennai has been grappling with an acute water crisis over the past few months. The southern metropolis is facing a daily water deficit of at least 200 million litres, and the four reservoirs supplying to the city have run dry.The Tamil Nadu government had earlier requested the railways to help them ferry the water to the city.Earlier, Chief Minister K Palaniswami had announced mitigating Chennai’s water woes by getting drinking water supplied from Jolarpettai with an allocation of Rs 65 crore.ALSO READ | Water woes: Running out of time | India Today InsightALSO WATCH | Tamil Nadu remains on edge as state struggles to endure water crisisFor the latest World Cup news, live scores and fixtures for World Cup 2019, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for World Cup news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Posted bySnigdha Choudhurylast_img read more