DefinitionMorton neuroma is an injury to the nerve between the toes, which causes thickening and pain. It commonly affects the nerve that travels between the third and fourth toes.CausesThe exact cause is unknown. Doctors believe the following may play a role in the development of this condition:Wearing tight shoes and high heelsAbnormal positioning of toesFlat feetForefoot problems, including bunions and hammer toesHigh foot archesMorton neuroma is more common in women than in men.SymptomsTingling in the space between the third and fourth toesToe crampingSharp, shooting, or burning pain in the ball of the foot and sometimes toesPain that increases when wearing shoes or pressing on the areaPain that gets worse over timeIn rare cases, nerve pain occurs in the space between the second and third toes. This is not a common form of Morton neuroma, but treatment is similar.Exams and TestsYour health care provider can usually diagnose this problem by examining your foot. A foot x-ray may be done to rule out bone problems. MRI or ultrasound can successfully diagnose the condition.Nerve testing (electromyography) cannot diagnose Morton neuroma. But it may be used to rule out conditions that cause similar symptoms.Blood tests may be done to check for inflammation-related conditions, including certain forms of arthritis.TreatmentNonsurgical treatment is tried first. Your doctor may recommend any of the following:Padding and taping the toe areaShoe insertsChanges to footwear, for example wearing shoes with wider toe boxes or flat heelsAnti-inflammatory medicines taken by mouth or injected into the toe areaNerve blocking medicines injected into the toe areaOther painkillersPhysical therapyAnti-inflammatories and painkillers are not recommended for long-term treatment.advertisementIn some cases, surgery is needed to remove the thickened tissue and inflammed nerve. This helps relieve pain and improve foot function. Numbness after surgery is permanent.Outlook (Prognosis)Nonsurgical treatment does not always improve symptoms. Surgery to remove the thickened tissue is successful in about 85% of cases.Possible ComplicationsMorton neuroma can make walking difficult. Persons with this foot condition may also have trouble with activities that put pressure on the foot, such as pressing the gas pedal while driving. It may hurt to wear certain types of shoes, such as high-heels.When to Contact a Medical ProfessionalCall your health care provider if you have persistent pain or tingling in your foot or toe area.PreventionAvoid ill-fitting shoes. Wear shoes with a wide toe box or flat heels.ReferencesMcGee DL. Podiatric procedures. In: Roberts JR, Hedges JR, eds. Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap 51.Scardina RJ, Lee SM. Morton neuroma. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2008:chap 85.Review Date:4/16/2013Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial Team.
0 Fitness Sports Tags Post a comment Share your voice Getty Images At the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, we’ll get to watch athletes compete for gold medals in four new sports: karate, surfing, skateboarding and sport climbing (also known as indoor rock climbing). Rock climbing has been around since — well, since the first time someone tried to climb something rocky. But modern recreational climbing started in the 19th century, with Sport Climbing only emerging in the 1970s and ’80s. In traditional climbing, sport climbing’s outdoor counterpart, the focus is typically on scaling a route or reaching the top of a natural landmark. A lead climber will place bolts on a mountain as they go, typically with hand drills, then remove them once they are complete. The climbers use ropes to protect themselves against falls. Traditional climbing takes place outside without a predetermined route. Getty Images In contrast, sport climbing takes place on engineered or indoor routes where climbers are using protection already bolted in place. They practice in pursuit of physical perfection and strategy as opposed to vertical height. Rock climbing has evolved as a catch-all term for many different sports, including everything from free soloing to bouldering. With that in mind, here’s everything you need to know about sport climbing at the 2020 Olympics. Sport climbing events at the 2020 Olympics Sport climbing will be broken up into three separate disciplines: speed climbing, lead climbing and bouldering. Not every country will be represented; only 20 athletes per gender (40 climbers total) will be allowed to compete at the Games, and only 2 athletes per gender per country will compete in any given event. FYI, the International Olympic Committee currently recognizes only two genders — female and male. There are currently stipulations for athletes that identify as transgender, both female and male, to compete. But there aren’t any guidelines or rulings for athletes who don’t identify as female or male — including those who are nonbinary, agender and genderqueer. Speed climbingTwo climbers, one wall. IFSC Speed climbing is relatively simple: there are two climbers with safety ropes and one 15-meter wall set at a 95-degree angle. The climbers race against each other to get to the top, with the fastest one winning. BoulderingAthletes use physical and mental precision to climb to the top of a bouldering route. IFSC Bouldering takes place on an even shorter wall, where climbers take turns attempting to scale as many routes on a four-meter-tall wall in 4 minutes. Each route (also called a bouldering problem) is laid out with hand and foot holds in a specific color, and they vary in difficulty based on the size of the holds and the way they are spaced out. A climber completes a problem by grabbing the top hold with both hands. Lead climbingIn Lead Climbing, participants secure themselves with a rope as they climb higher. IFSC Lead climbing is arguably the most recognizable of the three events. The climber has six minutes to climb as high on a wall that is taller than 15 meters. They use safety ropes that attach to quickdraws on their way up, allowing the rope to run freely while they stay anchored to the wall. If two athletes reach the same point on the wall, the person who got there first is the winner. In both bouldering and lead climbing, climbers are not allowed to practice climbing on the routes before they compete or watch each other scale the wall, and they only have a couple of minutes to study the routes and decide their strategy before the timer begins. How to qualify for Olympic sport climbing The 40 spots total for sport climbing are going to be hard to nab. One male and one female spot will be reserved for athletes from Japan, the host country. Another man and woman will be chosen by the Tripartite Commission, who give Olympic spots out to qualified athletes in special circumstances. If you were counting on your toes and fingers, that leaves 36 total spots left. The rest of the spots will be determined through a series of qualifying events taking place from August 2019 till spring 2020. IFSC Combined World Championships The championship event for the International Federation of Sport Climbing will take place on August 20-21, 2019 in Toyko, Japan. The top seven women and top seven men will each receive Olympic invitations. Because each country can only have two male and two female athletes, if one country has many female competitors in the top seven, only the top two will be invited and other women further down the list will get bids (the same goes for the men). Olympic qualifying event This will take place on November 28-December 1, 2019, in Toulouse, France. Athletes that have already qualified for the Olympics will not attend. The only invited athletes will be the top 20 climbers on the IFSC’s World Cup circuit, so climbers will be encouraged to participate in the World season. Similar rules as the last event apply, but this time only 6 female and 6 male athletes will get Olympic bids (and again, only 4 total from each country). If you’re still managing to count along, you’ll notice that there’s only five spots for men and five for women remaining. Instead of any more mega-events, the rest of bids will be determined through a series of continental championships. Continental championships Athletes that still haven’t qualified can compete in these events, but there’s a twist: climbers can only participate in the event that their climbing federation is a member of. So, a climber from the US can only compete in the Pan-Am event. The male and female winners from each event will be awarded a spot, but if their country has already met its limit of four athletes total, the Olympic bid will go to the next in line. The first continental championship is the Pan-Am event on Feb. 27 to March 1, 2020 at Sender One in Los Angeles, California. The next four take place in April through May of 2020 in each major continent. Medaling system The Olympic and Paralympic medals are made from recycled electronics. Tokyo 2020 If you thought the qualifying system was a bit complicated, take a deep breath. There’s only one set of medals awarded per gender, so all three events will go into determining which country gets the gold, silver and bronze. The speed climbing discipline will be done in a bracket format, with athletes competing head to head, while bouldering is in a leaderboard format. Lead climbing will have a point system in which each hold on the wall counts as one point and the athlete who climbs the highest will obtain the highest score. Once all the athletes are ordered by placement per event, their placement numbers will be multiplied, and the climbers with the lowest scores will win medals. Because of the scoring format, each climber will compete in each event. For example, if an athlete gets second place in speed climbing, third in bouldering and first in lead climbing their overall score would be six (2 times 3 times 1 equals 6). Sport climbing schedule The Olympic master schedule has already been released, with sport climbing qualifying events on Aug. 4 and 5, 2020. The finals will be on Aug. 6 and 7. In the US, NBC will broadcast events, with the BBC securing rights in England and Channel Seven, 7Mate and 7Two in Australia. All events will take place at the Aomi Urban Sports Park in Tokyo.
Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Now 2 min read Before the Switch launched, Nintendo set a target of shipping 2 million of the hybrid consoles during its first month on sale. We’ve already heard about Zelda: Breath of the Wild selling more copies on Switch than there are Switch, but now we know that Nintendo easily beat its own target, shipping 2.74 million Switch consoles in its first month.Breath of the Wild continues to outpace the hardware, racking up 2.76 million copies sold. This is surely a mix of gamers buying more than one copy (standard and collector’s edition), and those who haven’t been able to get a Switch yet buying Zelda anyway in preparation. If you add in the Wii U version, the total increases to 3.84 million copies. The good news for Nintendo doesn’t end there. According to Eurogamer, the 3DS is continuing to sell well. The 2016 sales report shows 7.27 million 3DS sales, taking the lifetime total to 66 million. Pokémon Sun and Pokémon Moon played a big part in shifting new hardware, selling 15.44 million copies.Considering the Wii U was never really very popular, it’s impressive to find it still managed to sell 760,000 units last year. Its lifetime sales now sit at 13.56 million, which is easily going to be surpassed by Switch at this rate. Nintendo is predicting another 10 million Switch will sell over the next 12 months, taking the total close to 13 million. That’s lower than the production doubling estimate of 18 million made in March.Surprisingly good sales of the 3DS last year make it clear Nintendo won’t be ending support for its handheld platform any time soon. In fact, the 3DS is expected to sell another 6 million units over the next year. If the rumors of a Mini Switch arriving in 2019 are true, then Nintendo will likely continue supporting the 3DS until then. This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. April 27, 2017 This story originally appeared on PCMag Enroll Now for Free